Whether you die to a computer controlled enemy in Fallout 76 or you die in PvP combat you’re going to be leaving some items behind. All of the junk items that you have on your person will be dropped upon death. They will be left behind in a small paper bag.
Once you respawn you can head back to your death location which is marked on the map with a skull to retrieve your items. However, any player in the game instance can also pick up those items as well. Fortunately your bigger ticket items like weapons will not be dropped when you die.
So long as someone doesn’t pick up the items or you don’t log out before retrieving it, these items in the paper bag will remain in the world for you to get for the rest of your game. Simply respawn close by your dropped items and then head to the paper bag to put them back in your inventory.
Eventhough the items that are dropped when you die are considered “Junk” they do play a pretty big role in Fallout 76 and can be pretty valuable in crafting. Junk items can be scrapped for materials which can be used to create items at your camp.